- Became the 266th pope of the Roman Catholic Church in 2013
- Calls on America to welcome illegal immigrants fleeing persecution in their homelands
- Characterizes capitalism as an economic system “where the powerful feed upon the powerless,” and which leads inevitably to “the greedy exploitation of environmental resources”
- Asserts that the “inequality” inherent in capitalist economies constitutes “the root of social ills” and “eventually engenders … violence”
- Believes that “the bulk of global warming” is due to “the great concentration of greenhouse gases” generated by “human action”
- Opposes the death penalty and life-in-prison
Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on December 17, 1936, Jorge Mario Bergoglio was ordained as a Jesuit priest in 1969. He later served as the Archbishop of Buenos Aires from 1998-2013, a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church of Argentina from 2001-13, and President of the Bishops' Conference of Argentina from 2005-11. On March 13, 2013, Bergoglio became Pope Francis, the Catholic Church's 266th pontiff. From that platform, he has been outspoken on a number of social and political issues. For instance, immigration and refugee migration:
- In July 2013, Francis urged compassion for the many thousands of Muslim migrants from Tunisia and Libya who, fleeing the violence in their respective homelands, were boarding unstable, overcrowded boats and attempting to reach the island of Lampedusa—Italy's southernmost territory—across the Mediterranean Sea. In light of the many deaths and drownings that occurred whenever these vessels capsized, Francis impugned Europeans for having “lost a sense of brotherly responsibility” to these “brothers and sisters of ours.”
- In July 2014, when scores of thousands of Central American minors were migrating illegally into the southern United States, Francis decried the situation as a “humanitarian emergency” which required, “as a first urgent measure,” that “these children be welcomed and protected”—at American taxpayer expense. Moreover, he characterized America's treatment of illegal immigrants generally as “racist and xenophobic.”
- In January 2015, Francis told reporters that, as “a beautiful gesture of brotherhood and support for immigrants,” he hoped to someday ceremoniously “enter the United States from the border with Mexico.”
- During his September 2015 visit to the United States, Francis referred to illegal immigrants as “pilgrims,” saying: “I ask you to excuse me if in some way I am pleading my own case. The Church in the United States knows like few others the hopes present in the hearts of these ‘pilgrims.’ ... Offer them the warmth of the love of Christ and you will unlock the mystery of their heart. I am certain that, as so often in the past, these people will enrich America and its Church.”
- On January 17, 2016, Pope Francis delivered a message for The World Day of Migrants and Refugees. He emphasized how important it was for Western nations to shed their own prejudicial and xenophobic impulses, and to welcome migrants and refugees from Islamic countries in the Middle East and North Africa. He suggested that the cultural exchanges brought about by such migrations had the potential to "transfor[m] the whole of humanity" in a positive way. And he said that a more "equitable distribution of the earth's goods" could go a long way toward alleviating the need for any future mass migrations. Among the pope's remarks:
Refugees and people fleeing from their homes challenge individuals and communities, and their traditional ways of life; at times they upset the cultural and social horizons which they encounter. Increasingly, the victims of violence and poverty, leaving their homelands, are exploited by human traffickers during their journey towards the dream of a better future. If they survive the abuses and hardships of the journey, they then have to face latent suspicions and fear. In the end, they frequently encounter a lack of clear and practical policies regulating the acceptance of migrants and providing for short or long term programs of integration respectful of the rights and duties of all.... Migrants are our brothers and sisters in search of a better life, far away from poverty, hunger, exploitation and the unjust distribution of the planet's resources which are meant to be equitably shared by all....
Those who migrate are forced to change some of their most distinctive characteristics and, whether they like or not, even those who welcome them are also forced to change.... The presence of migrants and refugees seriously challenges the various societies which accept them. Those societies are faced with new situations which could create serious hardship unless they are suitably motivated, managed and regulated. How can we ensure that integration will become mutual enrichment, open up positive perspectives to communities, and prevent the danger of discrimination, racism, extreme nationalism or xenophobia?
Biblical revelation urges us to welcome the stranger; it tells us that in so doing, we open our doors to God, and that in the faces of others we see the face of Christ himself.... Yet there continue to be debates about the conditions and limits to be set for the reception of migrants, not only on the level of national policies, but also in some parish communities whose traditional tranquillity seems to be threatened.... Each of us is responsible for his or her neighbor: we are our brothers' and sisters' keepers, wherever they live. Concern for fostering good relationships with others and the ability to overcome prejudice and fear are essential ingredients for promoting the culture of encounter, in which we are not only prepared to give, but also to receive from others. Hospitality, in fact, grows from both giving and receiving.
From this perspective, it is important to view migrants not only on the basis of their status as regular or irregular, but above all as people whose dignity is to be protected and who are capable of contributing to progress and the general welfare. This is especially the case when they responsibly assume their obligations towards those who receive them, gratefully respecting the material and spiritual heritage of the host country, obeying its laws and helping with its needs. Migrations cannot be reduced merely to their political and legislative aspects, their economic implications and the concrete coexistence of various cultures in one territory. All these complement the defence and promotion of the human person, the culture of encounter, and the unity of peoples, where the Gospel of mercy inspires and encourages ways of renewing and transforming the whole of humanity....
[S]olidarity, cooperation, international interdependence and the equitable distribution of the earth's goods are essential for more decisive efforts, especially in areas where migration movements begin, to eliminate those imbalances which lead people, individually or collectively, to abandon their own natural and cultural environment... Public opinion also needs to be correctly formed, not least to prevent unwarranted fears and speculations detrimental to migrants.... At the heart of the Gospel of mercy the encounter and acceptance by others are intertwined with the encounter and acceptance of God himself. Welcoming others means welcoming God in person!...
- In February 2016, Francis visited Mexico and lamented the "humanitarian crisis" on America's southern border. Just prior to celebrating a Mass before a crowd of some 200,000 people along the banks of the Rio Grande, the pontiff faced a number of makeshift crosses that had been erected in memory of migrants who had died attempting to cross into the United States, and he prayed for those people. He then turned toward a group of several hundred illegal immigrants standing across the river in El Paso, Texas, and issued his blessing to them. Later, when the pope was returning to Rome, reporters asked him to comment on Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump, who had spoken forcefully about the need to deport illegal immigrants and build a wall between the United States and Mexico. Francis replied: "A person who thinks only about building walls, wherever they may be, and not building bridges, is not Christian. This is not in the gospel." Soon thereafter, a spokesman for Francis clarified the pope's remarks: "The Pope said what we already know, if we followed his teaching and positions: we shouldn’t build walls, but bridges. It’s his generic view, coherent with the nature of solidarity from the gospel. This wasn’t, in any way, a personal attack or an indication on who to vote for..."
- During his Urbi et Orbi address from St. Peter’s Basilica on Easter Sunday 2016, Francis urged Christians to reach out to refugees from Syria, Libya, and Yemen. “The Easter message of the risen Christ,” he said, is “a message of life for all humanity, echoes down the ages and invites us not to forget those men and women seeking a better future, an ever more numerous throng of migrants and refugees — including many children — fleeing from war, hunger, poverty and social injustice. All too often, these brothers and sisters of ours meet along the way with death or, in any event, rejection by those who could offer them welcome and assistance.... All of us together, Muslims, Hindus, Catholics, Copts, Evangelical [Protestants] brothers and sisters — children of the same God — we want to live in peace, integrated.” The “blind and brutal violence” of terrorism, he added, should be fought with “weapons of love.”
- On July 27, 2016 in Poland, Francis urged that nation's political leaders to “overcome fear” and to demonstrate “great wisdom and compassion” by welcoming the many Muslims who were fleeing conflict and hardship in places like Syria and North Africa. Noting that many Poles themselves had once been immigrants, the pope emphasized the need to understand the reasons that were now causing the new wave of migrants to leave their homelands. “We must not be afraid to say the truth,” he declared, “the world is at war because it has lost peace. When I speak of war I speak of wars over interests, money, resources, not religion. All religions want peace, it's the others who want war.... Needed is a spirit of readiness to welcome those fleeing from wars and hunger, and solidarity with those deprived of their fundamental rights, including the right to profess one's faith in freedom and safety.”
- In September 2016, Pope Francis said that authentic European hospitality to Middle Eastern and North African refugees could be “our greatest security against hateful acts of terrorism.” He added: “I encourage you to welcome refugees into your homes and communities, so that their first experience of Europe is not the traumatic experience of sleeping cold on the streets, but one of warm welcome.... [Each refugee] has a name, a face and a story, as well as an inalienable right to live in peace and to aspire to a better future” for their children.
In November 2013, Francis released the first major document of his papacy—a 67-page Apostilic Exhortation titled Evangelii Gaudium (The Joy of the Gospel), which characterized capitalism as an economic system where “exclusion and inequality” are ubiquitous; “where the powerful feed upon the powerless”; where “idolotry” that worships “the god of money” leads inevitably to “the greedy exploitation of environmental resources”; and where it is customary to “plunder nature [in order] to sustain the frenetic rhythm of consumption” and “unbridled consumerism” that is “inherent” in free-market systems. In addition, Francis:
- asserted that “the culture of prosperity deadens us”;
- depicted capitalism as a system “which tends to devour everything which stands in the way of increased profits,” thereby rendering “whatever is fragile, like the environment,” utterly “defenseless before the interests of a deified market”;
- scorned the “trickle-down theories which assume that economic growth, encouraged by a free market, will inevitably succeed in bringing about greater justice and inclusiveness in the world”;
- maintained that such theories were based on “a crude and naïve trust in the goodness of those wielding economic power and in the sacralized workings of the prevailing economic system”; and
- warned that “such an economy kills.”
By Francis's reckoning, the “inequality” inherent in capitalist economies constitutes “the root of social ills” and “eventually engenders … violence.” “Until exclusion and inequality in society and between peoples is reversed,” he contends, “it will be impossible to eliminate violence."
“The problems of the poor,” says Francis, must be “radically resolved” by: (a) “rejecting the absolute autonomy of markets and financial speculation,” (b) “attacking the structural causes of inequality,” and (c) rejecting “the conservative ideal of individualism,” which “is undermining the common good.” What is needed, he explains, is a “radical new financial and economic system” designed to “avoid human inequality and ecological devastation.” Because “we can no longer trust in the unseen forces and the ‘invisible hand’ of the market,” genuine “growth in justice” requires not merely economic growth, but also “a better distribution of income” and a “legitimate redistribution” of wealth.
In a June 2014 interview, Francis said: “We are discarding an entire generation to maintain an economic system that can’t hold up any more, a system that to survive, must make war, as all great empires have done. But as a third world war can’t be waged, they make regional wars … they produce and sell weapons, and with this, the balance sheets of the idolatrous economies, the great world economies that sacrifice man at the feet of the idol of money, are resolved …”
Francis took up these themes again in a July 2015 speech in Bolivia, saying:
"Colonialism, old and new, which reduces the poor to mere suppliers of raw materials and cheap labor, generates violence, poverty, forced migration, and all the evils that we can see. This led to inequity and violence that no police, military or intelligence services can stop. Human beings and nature must not be at the service of money. We say 'no' to an economy of exclusion and inequity where money dominates instead of serving. This economy kills. This economy is exclusionary. This plan destroys Mother Earth."
In the same speech, Francis quoted a fourth-century bishop in describing the unfettered pursuit of money as “the dung of the devil.” He said he supported activist efforts to obtain “so elementary and undeniably necessary a right as that of the three 'Ls': land, lodging and labour.” Denouncing a system that “has imposed the mentality of profit at any price, with no concern for social exclusion or the destruction of nature,” Francis added: “Let us not be afraid to say it: we want change, real change, structural change.” He also decried “the new colonialism” which “takes on different faces” such as “the anonymous influence of mammon: corporations, loan agencies, certain ‘free trade’ treaties, and the imposition of measures of ‘austerity’ which always tighten the belt of workers and the poor.”
The pope's speech in Bolivia was preceded by lengthy remarks from the country's Marxist quasi-dictator, Evo Morales, who wore a jacket adorned with the face of the Argentine revolutionary Che Guevara. At one point, Morales presented the pope with a gift: a carved wooden hammer-and-sickle cross bearing the figure of a crucified Christ. When Francis was later asked whether he felt troubled in any way by the gift, he replied that he intended to keep it, saying: “I understand this work. For me it wasn't an offense.”
The pope's words prompted the author and scholar Dennis Prager to write: “In terms of evil committed, what is the difference between the hammer-and-sickle and the swastika? Would the pope receive, let alone keep, a fascist, racist or Nazi sculpture with a crucified Christ on it? Of course not. Yet the hammer-and-sickle represents more human suffering than all of them combined. The number of people enslaved and murdered under the hammer-and-sickle dwarfs the number of people enslaved and murdered by any other doctrine in history.”
In June 2015, Francis released the first-ever papal encyclical devoted entirely to environmental issues. Lamenting that industrial pollution was causing great damage to “our oppressed and devastated earth,” he claimed that “plenty of scientific studies” had already attributed “the bulk of global warming” to “the great concentration of greenhouse gases” generated by “human action.” “If present trends continue, this century may well witness extraordinary climate change and an unprecedented destruction of ecosystems, with serious consequences for all of us,” wrote Francis. As a remedy, the pope proposed an increased reliance on “renewable energy sources” such as wind and solar: “We know that technology based on the use of highly polluting fossil fuels—especially coal, but also oil and, to a lesser degree, gas—needs to be progressively replaced without delay.” Moreover, he exhorted the wealthy to take “urgent action” to “change [their] lifestyles” and their reckless “consumption” patterns.
The pope's encyclical also framed environmental concerns as legitimate justifications for a massive, compensatory redistribution of wealth from prosperous, industrialized countries to poorer ones:
“The foreign debt of poor countries has become a way of controlling them, yet this is not the case where ecological debt is concerned. In different ways, developing countries, where the most important reserves of the biosphere are found, continue to fuel the development of richer countries at the cost of their own present and future. The developed countries ought to help pay this debt by significantly limiting their consumption of non-renewable energy and by assisting poorer countries to support policies and programmes of sustainable development.”
Strongly opposed to the death penalty, Francis says “it is impossible to imagine that states today cannot make use of another means than capital punishment to defend peoples' lives from an unjust aggressor.” “The commandment 'You shall not kill,'” he maintains, “has absolute value and applies to both the innocent and the guilty.” Francis also urges “all Christians and people of good will” to “struggle ... to improve prison conditions, out of respect for the human dignity of persons deprived of their liberty.” “And this,” the pope adds, “I connect with life imprisonment. Life imprisonment is a hidden death penalty.” By Francis's calculus, maximum-security prisons represent a form of torture, since their “principal characteristic is none other than external isolation” which can trigger “psychic and physical sufferings such as paranoia, anxiety, depression and weight loss and significantly increase the chance of suicide.”
In May 2015, Francis and the Vatican invited Gustavo Gutierrez, the father of the pro-Marxist liberation theology movement which previous popes had rejected, to speak to the press about ministering to the poor. In addition, Gutierrez was asked to write an article in the Vatican’s newspaper, L’Osservatore Romano. In light of these developments, Gutierrez happily speculated that Pope Francis seemed to be opening the Vatican's door to supporters of liberation theology. According to philosophy professor Jack Kerwick: “The closest Francis has come to criticizing communism is when he articulated a heavily qualified criticism” of what he called liberation theology's “Marxist interpretation of reality,” which the pope described as a “limitation” on a system of thought that otherwise had numerous “positive aspects.”
In the fall of 2014, Francis played a role in facilitating the re-establishment of diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba. According to a statement issued by the Vatican, the pope at that time wrote a personal letter to U.S. President Barack Obama and a separate letter to Cuban President Raúl Castro, inviting both leaders to try to “resolve humanitarian questions of common interest.”
During the course of his papacy, Francis has taken pains to issue positive portrayals of Islam. For instance, in late 2014—at a time when Islamic State and other Muslim militants were torturing and killing massive numbers of Christians in Nigeria, Indonesia, Somalia, Libya, Central African Republic, Uganda, Lebanon, Kenya, Pakistan, Sudan, and Iraq—he spoke positively of the Islamic faith:
- “Islam is a religion of peace, one which is compatible with respect for human rights and peaceful coexistence.”
- “[O]ur respect for true followers of Islam should lead us to avoid hateful generalisations, for authentic Islam and the proper reading of the Koran are opposed to every form of violence.”
On July 31, 2016, a few days after a jihadist had beheaded an elderly Catholic priest in France, Pope Francis said the following about the correlation between Islam and terrorism:
- "It's not true and it's not correct [to say] Islam is terrorism. I don't think it is right to equate Islam with violence.... In almost every religion there is always a small group of fundamentalists. We have them too. If I have to talk about Islamic violence, I have to talk about Christian violence. Every day in the newspapers I see violence in Italy, someone kills his girlfriend, another kills his mother-in-law, and these are baptised Catholics."
- "I think it is not right to identity Islam with violence. This is not right and this is not true."
- "I think that in nearly all religions there is a always a small fundamentalist group. We [Catholics] have them [too]."
- "I don't like to talk about Islamic violence because every day when I look at the papers I see violence here in Italy -- someone killing his girlfriend, someone killing his mother-in-law. These are baptized Catholics. If I speak of Islamic violence, I have to speak of Catholic violence. Not all Muslims are violent."
- "I know it dangerous to say this, but terrorism grows when there is no other option and when money is made a god and it, instead of the person, is put at the centre of the world economy. That is the first form of terrorism. That is a basic terrorism against all humanity. Let's talk about that."
- "I ask myself how many young people that we Europeans have left devoid of ideals, who do not have work. Then they turn to drugs and alcohol or enlist in ISIS."
Pope Francis favors the establishment of an independent Palestinian state adjacent to Israel. In May 2014, for instance, the Associated Press reported that Francis had “delivered a powerful boost of support to the Palestinians during a Holy Land pilgrimage ..., repeatedly backing their statehood aspirations, praying solemnly at Israel’s controversial separation barrier, and calling the stalemate in peace efforts ‘unacceptable.’” Moreover, the pope had pointedly called Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas a "man of peace." And the Vatican, in its official program, referred to Abbas as the president of the "state of Palestine."
On June 26, 2015, the Vatican signed a treaty with the "State of Palestine," in hopes that its legal recognition of the state "may in some way be a stimulus to bringing a definitive end to the long-standing Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which continues to cause suffering for both parties." The signatories were Vatican Foreign Minister Paul Gallagher, who issued the foregoing statement, and his Palestinian counterpart, Riad al-Malki. Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman Emmanuel Nahshon lamented that the treaty ignored "the historic rights of the Jewish people in the Land of Israel and to the places holy to Judaism in Jerusalem."
In September 2015, the Vatican reiterated its support for the nuclear deal that the U.S. and several negotiating partners had recently struck with the government of Iran. (For details of that deal, click here and here.) The Vatican's Secretary for Relations with the States, Archbishop Paul Gallagher, said that the Vatican "values positively" the nuclear accord because "it considers that the way to resolve disputes and difficulties should always be that of dialogue and negotiation." In a September 2015 speech to the United Nations, Pope Francis himself praised the deal as “proof of political goodwill” and voiced his hope that the agreement would be “lasting and efficacious.”
When Pope Francis visited Cuba that same month, he met with that nation's president (Raul Castro) as well as many priests, churchgoers, seminarians, children, and sick people. But he did not meet with Cuba's dissidents, who, as the Washington Post reports, "have fought tirelessly for democracy and human rights, and who continue to suffer regular beatings and arrests."
In a September 2015 interview, Pope Francis identified economic inequality as the root cause of the refugee crisis that was engulfing Europe with hundreds of thousands of Muslims from oppressive, war-torn regions of the Middle East and North Africa. Said Francis:
"These poor people are fleeing war, hunger, but that is the tip of the iceberg. Because underneath that is the cause; and the cause is a bad and unjust socioeconomic system, in everything, in the world—speaking of the environmental problem—in the socioeconomic society, in politics, the person always has to be in the center. That is the dominant economic system nowadays, it has removed the person from the center, placing the god money in its place, the idol of fashion. There are statistics, I don’t remember precisely, (I might have this wrong), but that 17% of the world’s population has 80% of the wealth."
That month as well, Pope Francis issued a broad appeal to Europe’s Catholics, calling on “every” parish, religious community, monastery and sanctuary to take in one refugee family—of whom the vast majority were Muslims from Syria, Iraq, and elsewhere in the Islamic world. By contrast, never during his papacy had Francis issued a similar call to protect the vast numbers of Christians who were being persecuted in Muslim lands.
In a March 2016 speech to an audience of French Christians, Pope Francis predicted that as a result of the migrant influx into Europe, the continent would eventually "go forward and find itself enhanced by the exchange among cultures."
In a May 17, 2016 interview with the French Catholic daily La Croix, Pope Francis acknowledged that the “idea of conquest is inherent to the soul of Islam,” and then immediately added that “one could also interpret the end of Saint Matthew’s gospel, where Jesus sends out his disciples to all nations, as the same idea of conquest. “In the face of Islamic terrorism,” he added, “it would therefore be better to question ourselves about the way in an overly Western model of democracy has been exported to countries such as Iraq, where a strong government previously existed. Or in Libya, where a tribal structure exists. We cannot advance without taking these cultures into account. As a Libyan said recently, 'We used to have one Gaddafi, now we have fifty.'”
In the same interview, Francis issued a criticism of free-market economies: “The initial problems are the wars in the Middle East and in Africa as well as the underdevelopment of the African continent, which causes hunger.... If there is so much unemployment, it is because of a lack of investment capable of providing employment, of which Africa has such a great need. More generally, this raises the question of a world economic system that has descended into the idolatry of money. The great majority of humanity’s wealth has fallen into the hands of a minority of the population. A completely free market does not work. Markets in themselves are good but they also require a fulcrum, a third party, or a state to monitor and balance them. In other words, [what is needed is] a social market economy.”
On May 23, 2016 at the Vatican, Pope Francis embraced his honored guest Ahmed al-Tayeb, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar, the prestigious Sunni Muslim center of learning in Cairo. According to the Associated Press, this meeting “reopen[ed] an important channel for Catholic-Muslim dialogue after a five-year lull and at a time of increased Islamic extremist attacks on Christians.” Islam scholar Robert Spencer provides the background information regarding the chain of events that had led to the meeting:
"Why has there been this 'five-year lull'? Because [according to AP,] 'the Cairo-based Al-Azhar froze talks with the Vatican to protest comments by then-Pope Benedict XVI.' What did Benedict say? Andrea Gagliarducci of the Catholic News Agency explains that after a jihad terrorist murdered 23 Christians in a church in Alexandria 2011, Benedict decried 'terrorism' and the 'strategy of violence' against Christians, and called for the Christians of the Middle East to be protected.... Ahmed al-Tayeb ... was furious. He railed at Benedict for his 'interference' in Egypt’s affairs and warned of a 'negative political reaction' to the Pope’s remarks. In a statement, Al-Azhar denounced the Pope’s 'repeated negative references to Islam and his claims that Muslims persecute those living among them in the Middle East.' Benedict stood his ground, and that was that.
"But in September 2013, Al-Azhar announced that Pope Francis had sent a personal message to al-Tayeb. In it, according to Al-Azhar, Francis declared his respect for Islam and his desire to achieve 'mutual understanding between the world’s Christians and Muslims in order to build peace and justice.' At the same time, al-Tayeb met with the Apostolic Nuncio to Egypt, Mgr. Jean-Paul Gobel, and told him in no uncertain terms that speaking about Islam in a negative manner was a 'red line' that must not be crossed... That strongly suggests that the 'dialogue' that Pope Francis has now reestablished will not be allowed to discuss the Muslim persecution of Christians that will escalate worldwide, especially since an incidence of that persecution led to the suspension of dialogue in the first place. What’s more, his dialogue partner, al-Tayeb, has shown himself over the years to be anything but a preacher of peace, cooperation and mercy: he has justified anti-Semitism on Qur’anic grounds ... Al-Azhar was also revealed to be offering free copies of a book that called for the slaughter of Christians and other Infidels."
In a February 17, 2017 speech to a world meeting of populist movements, Pope Francis—on the premise that all religions promote peace and are equally susceptible to being perverted by radicals—denied that terrorism is in any way connected to Islam or any other faith: “Christian terrorism does not exist, Jewish terrorism does not exist, and Muslim terrorism does not exist. They do not exist.” “No people is criminal or drug-trafficking or violent,” he said, adding: “There are fundamentalist and violent individuals in all peoples and religions—and with intolerant generalizations they become stronger because they feed on hate and xenophobia.” By the pope's calculus, terrorism results principally from economic inequalities rather than religious beliefs: “The poor and the poorer peoples are accused of violence yet, without equal opportunities, the different forms of aggression and conflict will find a fertile terrain for growth and will eventually explode.”
In the same speech, Francis warned that “the ecological crisis” caused by anthropogenic climate change “is real,” and that “a very solid scientific consensus indicates that we are presently witnessing a disturbing warming of the climatic system.” Claiming that catastrophe could result if “we deny science and disregard the voice of Nature,” he said: “Let us not fall into denial. Time is running out. Let us act. I ask you again—all of you, people of all backgrounds including native people, pastors, political leaders—to defend Creation.” The root of the problem, the pope added, was “a social and political process that flourishes in many parts of the world and poses a grave danger for humanity”—an apparent reference to capitalism and industrialization.
In late February 2017, Francis, in accordance with his effort to create a more "merciful church," reduced the punishments of a number of priests who had been convicted of sexual crimes like pedophilia. Overruling advice that he had been given by the Vatican Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, he reduced the punishment for some offenders to a lifetime of prayer. As The Daily Mail reported: "One of the priests was the Reverend Mauro Inzoli, who was found guilty of abusing young boys by the Vatican in 2012 and was ordered to be defrocked. However, he appealed, and in 2014 Francis reduced the penalty to a lifetime of prayer, prohibiting him from celebrating Mass in public or being near children, barring him from his diocese and ordering five years of psychotherapy. Rev. Inzoli was then convicted by an Italian criminal court for his sex crimes against five children as young as 12."
At a March 2017 workshop on biodiversity and biological extinction, environmentalist Peter Raven stated that "Pope Francis has urged us to have fewer children to make the world more sustainable." At the same workshop, Dr. Paul Ehrlich presented a paper arguing that Catholic teachings about birth control and abortion had resulted in a "collective failure" to reduce the world's population.
Pope Francis has long been opposed to private companies downsizing their workforces for purely economic reasons, as he articulated in a 2013 book-length letter stating that economies “can no longer turn to remedies that are a new poison, such as attempting to increase profits by reducing the work force and thereby adding to the ranks of the excluded.” Francis revisited this theme in March 2017, when he said: “Work gives us dignity, and leaders of the people and those in government are obliged to do everything possible so that every man and every woman can work and so hold their heads high and look others in the eye with dignity. Those who engage in economic maneuvering to make murky deals, closing factories and businesses and laying off workers in the process, commit a very grave sin.”